INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING
ANVUR - GEV 08 - SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
Class B (VQR)
ISSN [electronic version]: 2035-7982
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This work is licensed under CC BY-SA
Archeologia e architettura
This text describes a project for the archaeological area of San Carminiello ai Mannesi in Naples within the ancient Greek-Roman centre of Naples. The functional hypothesis is the construction of a building for students accommodation and of an archaeological museum but what is important is the ''architectural'' theme of “building above” that both the facilities try to interpreter. In this way, in fact, the buildings, suspended on the archaeological excavations, are able to establish a new relationship between ruins and the city in a new vision for the urban archaeological project.
Keywords: urban archaeology, archaeological project, ancient centre of Naples.
Il sistema di difesa durante il Secondo Conflitto Mondiale
The defense system in Sicily during the Second World War is characterized for the most part by military structures of small dimensions, in other cases it is a complex articulation of the spaces and the volumes (2 or 3 elevations), towards the attention to detail, especially when it came camouflage bunker (stone, house, apse, etc.,). The construction was done on the project of the General Staff and the material used was the brickwork and reinforced concrete and not. Natural ventilation is favored by placing a different level inputs with outlet air in places where it was difficult to stagnation gas. Artificial ventilation instead was realized through appropriate external vents. The heating was done with traditional wood stoves. In the Palermo area there are, information retrieved by military archive of Palermo, n. 2,075 military emplacement, different in shape, material and attached environments such as those of the shelter and ammunition. The bunkers also called casamatta, fortino e pillbox; They are situated on the coast, in the provincial roads, in the railway line and still at strategic locations camouflaged with the environment around.
The system of bunkers, is on one hand an evolution of the defense systems of the territory until then in use as the coastal guard towers, on the other hand, in the late twentieth century, it shows how a system obsolete and replaced by the most advanced technological systems (drones, satellite, etc.).
After the war, many families had lost everything, including the house, they took possession of the abandoned bunkers and trasformed in permanent housing. The people did their best to soften the dark aspect of Bunker. The walls were repainted in bright colors and the side of the thick outer walls were built small gardens. Today, most are in a complete state of abandonment by reason of their location, some have been demolished in the vicinity of roads and railway lines, while a small part was entrusted to associations that allow the fruition through guided tours. The renovate and development of the bunker together with guard towers make it possible to describe not only the defense system in use in our country connected to different historical events, but also to examine in depth the aspect technical-constructive of military construction (materials, type , etc.)
Now it wants the mastery of ''mechanic'' in place of that of ''bricklayer''. It wants architects able to build while having to think about or be able to disassemble. Oftentimes we see the arrogance of so many artifacts that arrogate to themselves the right to feel immortal and instead of this are only premature obsolescence ungovernable. The implementation timing of contemporary architecture are often Jurassic, and even when the building is not already completed, usually the circumstances for which it was wanted change, impairing the realization that more and more often doesn´t allow to go back. Architecture is no longer able to keep up with the constant changes that the environment imposes (now increasingly rapid). Some case studies take us to a deep reflection. We will have, therefore, to rethink architecture with all the meanings of the temporal transformation, then operational reversibility.
EARTHQUAKE DESIGN PROCEDURES
This paper reports the first step of a research project aimed at introducing soft computing techniques in the field of post-earthquake reconstruction. In April 2009, a disastrous earthquake struck the Italian city of L'Aquila, causing 309 deaths and damaging thousands of structures. As a result, Italian authorities established a regulatory framework for rebuilding process, which determines precise limitations for the seismic improvement of damaged buildings. According to this framework, a structural design final outcome, “eligible” or “not eligible”, depends on structural capacity and cost of works per square meter. The author, having worked to the seismic improvement of more than 10 RC and masonry structures damaged by the 2009 earthquake, believes that this evaluation system can be greatly improved through the use of simple soft computing tools. The goal of this work is to define a framework within which to build a fully automated methodology for decision support, with the aim of making the reconstruction process better. Fuzzy Logic seems to be the natural background for a methodology that aims to mimic the human expert judgment, in an environment where information is often vague and/or inaccurate.
Keywords: soft computing, seismic retrofitting, fuzzy logic.
Innovation and Technology
The identity consolidation which takes place in giving value to the historic and archaeological heritage, can find a key-point in the technological innovation, if this one is conceived as an instrument at the service of knowledge and of its widespread communication.
This contribution shows a design experimentation for the physical and virtual fruition of a singular proto-historic site: the Early Bronze Age Village in Nola. This discovery, unique of its kind, allowed the reconstruction of the physical and social organization of the Village. The design experimentation has been the occasion to verify the applicability of technologically advanced information tools whose aim is the realization of personalized knowledge paths. The use of the Augmented Reality increases the perception and interaction of the user with the environment which is enriched with visual, graphic and textual information, synchronized and developed in the virtual space, that the user cannot directly observe with its own senses. The perceived effect is that of a virtual space which coexists with the real one, in which the user is free to move, interacting with it. As a support of the system, the project expects the realization of punctual light architectures and organized paths, for a physical fruition compatible with the characters of the archaeological area. The project approach is shaped around the respect of the needs of conservation and defense of the archaeological heritage, but, at the same time, efficient for the widespread knowledge of historic, archaeological and social characters of these “valuable goods”. The support structures have the same generation matrix, modified according to the expected functions; they have been conceived as punctual, light and temporary sustainable architectures, designed according to the main rules of the eco-oriented building.
In this scenery, it is possible to read the signs of a new relationship between technology and archaeological environment.
Keywords: archaeological heritage, technological design, augmented reality