EDA, PUBLICATIONS WITH PEER REVIEW
ISSN [print version]: 2384-9576 - ISSN [electronic version]: 2035-7982
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING
ANVUR - GEV 08 - SCIENTIFIC JOURNAL
Class B (VQR)
ISSN [electronic version]: 2035-7982
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The scientific and cultural project EDA are the reasons the thought of Werner Heisenberg Nobel Prize for Physics in 1932
... It is probably true quite generally that in the history of human thinking the most fruitful developments frequently take place at those points where two different lines of thought meet. These lines may have their roots in quite different parts of human culture, in different times or different cultural environments or different religious traditions: hence if they actually meet, that is, if they are at least so much related to each other that a real interaction can take place, then one may hope that new and interesting developments may follow.
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Water and Urban scenography in Universal exhibitions since 1939
This article complements a precedent one which studies the use of water in the urban spaces of the Universal Exhibitions until 1929. It is focused on three groups and some specific events in each one. As a beginning, we will mainly stop at the Universal Exhibitions of New York 1939 and 1964, Osaka 1970 and Okinawa 1975. We will realize how fascinating the relationship between light and water was, in order to transform the space and try creating the called “world of tomorrow”.
At the end of the century, as water begun being a precious resource, sustainability was one of the main aims of several exhibitions like Seville 1992, Lisbon 1998 or Hannover 2000. We will finally finish talking about the exhibitions during the XXIst. century; Zaragoza 2008, Shangai 2010 or Yeosu 2012 and future events like Milan 2015, where water is a new paradigm for human being development. Our article is a journey through Universal Exhibitions with water as its guiding argument. The liquid joins urban design, scenography, art and the poetic of space. The way it is used along the different exhibitions, is a reflection of human being aims, its sensitivity and society interests.
Key words: Water; urban scenography; Universal Exhibitions
Analisi strutturale di un edificio con pannelli sandwich FRP
The structural behavior of a sample one-story building with FRP structural frame and slabs and walls made of innovative FRP sandwich panels is shown. The performed structural analyses account for different building sites and are based on the results of previous experimental tests. The seismic performances are compared with those of other traditional construction technologies.
Keywords: FRP structures, FRP sandwich panels, seismic performance
WATER AND URBAN SCENOGRAPHY
Water, essential material for the spatial creation from the territorial scale up to the most intimate one, has been used along history to create scenographies. We will study its use in the urban spaces of the Universal Exhibitions, ephemeral cities, created specifically for important cultural events which show new trends in urban development as well as the last technical advances and artistic concepts. Thus, we will focus on their different scales, from new urban planning up to the last water piece detail.
Because of the amount of events since the Universal Exhibition in London in 1851, beginning of our travel, we have selected two groups and some specific events in each one. As a beginning, we will visit the London Exhibition in 1851, the Chicago´s Columbine one in 1893 and the Paris one who took place in 1900. We will realize how fascinating the relationship between light and water was, in order to transform the space, both in their scenographic fountains and their landscape design.
We will finish at the beginning of the twentieth century, studying the ludic use of water in Seville´s Exhibition in 1929 and the evolution of “waterlight” art and the “magic fountains” of Barcelona the same year. During those ages, water scarcity was not a problem, the liquid was more a medium than a valuable good and current sustainability ideas were still far. Everything would change during the twentieth century and would be a new paradigm during the twenty first one but, it would be another story which we will study later. Our article shows a crossing travel through Universal Exhibitions with water as its guiding argument. The liquid joins urban design, scenography, art and the poetic of the space waiting for our applause.
Key words: Water; urban scenography; Universal Exhibitions
SEISMIC RISK REDUCTION FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Modern and ancient architecture are part of the cultural heritage of a community and they are remarkably important in order to preserve a country`s identity. Policies regarding cultural heritage in a nation aim at the acknowledgement, conservation, sustainability and restoration of it as evidence of national culture for present and future generations. Nevertheless, this legacy is threatened by the risk of being lost, and there are different threats either anthropic (human-caused direct damage, fire, collapse due to lack of planning and retrofitting, inadequate environmental management) or natural (earthquakes, climate change, landslides, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, etc.) that can cause the loss or damage of architectural heritage. Risk management of cultural heritage is a worldwide concern, and as a result of the increase of natural disasters in recent years in the world, the international scientific community and international organizations such as UNESCO are working to confront this problem, making different sectors aware of the importance of dealing with this problem and establishing appropriate risk management policies for cultural heritage as an important tool for sustainable development in a nation. Considering this important issue, the main goal of this article is studying seismic risk of architectural heritage and prevention policies. Seismic risk is a topic of interest in many countries, especially in Latin-American, middle-eastern and far eastern countries such as Japan. Studying seismicity as well as the actual situation of cultural heritage in Japan and Colombia, this article shows preliminary results of a research project on comparing the two countries in terms of retrofitting methodologies and risk management policies to protect architecture that is considered cultural heritage, which is important to reduce its vulnerability. This article also includes some considerations about laws enforced in both Japan and Colombia to protect architectural heritage in high seismic hazard regions and their prevention strategies.
Keywords: Seismic risk, Architectural heritage, Colombia, Japan, Retrofitting methodologies
NEW MEDITERRANEAN URBAN FACE
The land coast, with particular emphasis the port-city, are in fact used more and more like a menu in which different users increasingly move freely according to their needs.
The new definition parameters with respect to which the landscapes are recognizable, articulating configurations, immutable, and not concluded, but on the contrary, variables are always open and more leads, not the placement of functions, but the interaction between subjects, and actually pushed social, cultural, political and economic ...
The port city now seems more like a miscellany, and a composite variable, the definition of which combine multiple devices and whose understanding and operational management appears to be no longer in the perimeter of registers and formal, but the identification of rules and tactics logical drive and able to predict particular outcomes and the evolution of the different dynamics and vocations.
“Dream City”, “Dream Lands” and “Dream Country” will constitute the new benchmarks in the definition of geographies based on imagination, perception and use of spaces and scenarios from the sensitivity of each individual and class user, until the size of the global imaginary fantasy, with respect to which space, urbanity and territories are distinguished as “complementary” or “complementary” depending on the specific “action brands” and “areas of opportunity”.
Keywords: Mediterranean cities, new paradigm, urban face.