WATER AND URBAN SCENOGRAPHY
Water, essential material for the spatial creation from the territorial scale up to the most intimate one, has been used along history to create scenographies. We will study its use in the urban spaces of the Universal Exhibitions, ephemeral cities, created specifically for important cultural events which show new trends in urban development as well as the last technical advances and artistic concepts. Thus, we will focus on their different scales, from new urban planning up to the last water piece detail.
Because of the amount of events since the Universal Exhibition in London in 1851, beginning of our travel, we have selected two groups and some specific events in each one. As a beginning, we will visit the London Exhibition in 1851, the Chicago´s Columbine one in 1893 and the Paris one who took place in 1900. We will realize how fascinating the relationship between light and water was, in order to transform the space, both in their scenographic fountains and their landscape design.
We will finish at the beginning of the twentieth century, studying the ludic use of water in Seville´s Exhibition in 1929 and the evolution of “waterlight” art and the “magic fountains” of Barcelona the same year. During those ages, water scarcity was not a problem, the liquid was more a medium than a valuable good and current sustainability ideas were still far. Everything would change during the twentieth century and would be a new paradigm during the twenty first one but, it would be another story which we will study later. Our article shows a crossing travel through Universal Exhibitions with water as its guiding argument. The liquid joins urban design, scenography, art and the poetic of the space waiting for our applause.
Key words: Water; urban scenography; Universal Exhibitions
SEISMIC RISK REDUCTION FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE
Modern and ancient architecture are part of the cultural heritage of a community and they are remarkably important in order to preserve a country`s identity. Policies regarding cultural heritage in a nation aim at the acknowledgement, conservation, sustainability and restoration of it as evidence of national culture for present and future generations. Nevertheless, this legacy is threatened by the risk of being lost, and there are different threats either anthropic (human-caused direct damage, fire, collapse due to lack of planning and retrofitting, inadequate environmental management) or natural (earthquakes, climate change, landslides, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, etc.) that can cause the loss or damage of architectural heritage. Risk management of cultural heritage is a worldwide concern, and as a result of the increase of natural disasters in recent years in the world, the international scientific community and international organizations such as UNESCO are working to confront this problem, making different sectors aware of the importance of dealing with this problem and establishing appropriate risk management policies for cultural heritage as an important tool for sustainable development in a nation. Considering this important issue, the main goal of this article is studying seismic risk of architectural heritage and prevention policies. Seismic risk is a topic of interest in many countries, especially in Latin-American, middle-eastern and far eastern countries such as Japan. Studying seismicity as well as the actual situation of cultural heritage in Japan and Colombia, this article shows preliminary results of a research project on comparing the two countries in terms of retrofitting methodologies and risk management policies to protect architecture that is considered cultural heritage, which is important to reduce its vulnerability. This article also includes some considerations about laws enforced in both Japan and Colombia to protect architectural heritage in high seismic hazard regions and their prevention strategies.
Keywords: Seismic risk, Architectural heritage, Colombia, Japan, Retrofitting methodologies
NEW MEDITERRANEAN URBAN FACE
The land coast, with particular emphasis the port-city, are in fact used more and more like a menu in which different users increasingly move freely according to their needs.
The new definition parameters with respect to which the landscapes are recognizable, articulating configurations, immutable, and not concluded, but on the contrary, variables are always open and more leads, not the placement of functions, but the interaction between subjects, and actually pushed social, cultural, political and economic ...
The port city now seems more like a miscellany, and a composite variable, the definition of which combine multiple devices and whose understanding and operational management appears to be no longer in the perimeter of registers and formal, but the identification of rules and tactics logical drive and able to predict particular outcomes and the evolution of the different dynamics and vocations.
“Dream City”, “Dream Lands” and “Dream Country” will constitute the new benchmarks in the definition of geographies based on imagination, perception and use of spaces and scenarios from the sensitivity of each individual and class user, until the size of the global imaginary fantasy, with respect to which space, urbanity and territories are distinguished as “complementary” or “complementary” depending on the specific “action brands” and “areas of opportunity”.
Keywords: Mediterranean cities, new paradigm, urban face.
The research called “Smart Shading” aimed to show how an intervention on the last finishing layer of the exterior walls can lead to a significant increase in the value of the whole building in terms of environmental quality and improvement of thermal insulation performance. The project has been developed by Iuav University of Venice, “Color and Light in Architecture” Research Unit, Veneto Region, Materis Paints Italia SpA and CERT Treviso Tecnologia (now T2i).
In the first part, the paper aims to show a summary of the goals of the research for the development of “Smart Shading” facade finishing. In the second part it aims to deal with the possible applications of the finish. In particular we want to show the importance of these tool for the requalification, regeneration and valorization of the architectural envelope of buildings, realized in the second half of the twentieth century, that are worthy to receive interventions for improvement.
Keywords: Sustainable coatings, smart technologies, environmental quality
THE KEY-ROLE OF PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE SOCIAL HOUSING PROCESS
A study on the right to housing reveals the needy to face the topic of housing affordability. In fact, this is a topic which is currently likely to become a social issue. Globalization is strongly connected to our metropolitan cities: goods and individual mobility increases, lifestyles and needs change, new ways of living arise.
The economic crisis is often seen as a brake on growth, but in reality it can turn into an opportunity to revitalize the research on new solutions and methods towards economic, environmental and social sustainability.
Against this background, the problem of housing emergency comes to light. New policies designed to stimulate social housing provisions have to be improved in order to develop the supply of affordable housing.
The Public Administration must recover its traditional role of promoting and financing housing initiatives. Public-private partnerships seem to be the best solution to share tasks and risks. The private actor collaborates as an investor, with means and resources, and the public body acts as a provider and supervisor of the process to protect general interest.
The challenge is to achieve a rational approach towards social housing. The experience of a country, such as Austria, has been a good example owing to the implementation of effective procedures and efficient management. Analysing this model it is possible to identify problems in the Italian system and to outline guidelines to develop new housing policies towards the achievement of social and sustainable projects.
Keywords: social housing, public authority, Vienna.